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Abstracts from the 1998 Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting

Author Index

Table of Contents

Absolute vs. Relative Risk as a Basis for Cross-Species Prediction of Carcinogen Potency
L. R. Rhomberg, I. Linkov, A. Shagiahmetov, R. Wilson, and G. M. Gray

Achieving Good Risk Assessment Practices in the EPA Hazardous Waste Program
D. A. Canter

Adaptability of Environmental and Occupational Protections Systems to Major Societal Change: Lessons from the Polish Experience
H. S. Brown, D. Angel, and P. Derr

Addressing Variability and Uncertainty in Residual Risk Analysis
D. A. Amaral, M. G. Dusetzina, and B. S. Perkovich

Aggregate Exposure and Beyond: The Methodological and Informational Challenges We Face Under the FQPA
K. M. Thompson

Aggregate Risk Assessment of Pesticides at the U.S. EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs
D. J. Miller

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring and Human Risk Assessment in Slovakia
I. Holoubek

Ambient Water Quality Criteria Methodology Revisions
D. Borum, J. Du, J. Donohue, Y. Patel, K. Sappington, R. Cantilli, C. Abernathy, W. Morrow, and S. Gilbertson

Analysis of Risk Management Framework Through Revising Process of Environmental Quality Standards
K. Yamazaki

Anticarcinogencity and Interpretation of Long-Term Rodent Bioassays
G. M. Gray, I. Linkov, and R.Wilson

Anticarcinogenicity in Rodent Bioassays: Relation to Observed Human Anticarcinogenicity
F. Pompei, R. Wilson, I. Linkov, L. R. Rhomberg, and G. M. Gray

Application of Comparative Risk to Strategic Planning and Budgeting at the U.S. EPA
J. M. Greenblott and M. S. Brody

Application of Microexposure Event Modeling to the Evaluation of Water-Related Exposures, The
J. A. Rothrock, P. S. Price, R. E. Keenan, E. S. Ebert, C. F. Chaisson, and W. R. Muir

Application of Optimization Theory in Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision Analysis
M. A. Randall

Application of Soil Contact Rates to Dermal Pathway Exposure Assessment
J. Kissel, J. Shirai, and T. Garlock

Applications of Stochastic Processes to Microbial Risk Assessment
H. M. Marks and M. E. Coleman

Applying Risk Assessment for Indicators of Sustainable Development
R. V. Kolluru

Approach for Evaluating Emerging Issues and Environmental Futures, An
K. M. Thompson and J. K. Hammitt

Approach for Quantifying the Risk of Injury from Toys, An
C. Doran and T. Xu

Are Stakeholder Involvement Processes Democratic? The Answer Is a Resounding, "It Depends!"
O. R. Ehart

Arizona’s Soil Remediation Rule: An Integrated Risk Assessment/Risk Management Program
T. L. Copeland and T. A. Koelsch

Arsenic and Plague: An Analysis of Communicating Risks in India
Arvid S. Susarla

Assessing Anticipatory Approaches to Climate Change Policy
K. Green

Assessing Post-MACT Risks for Air Toxics
M. G. Dusetzina, K. A. Rimer, and D. A. Amaral

Assessing Preferences for Environmental Decisions With Long-Term Consequences
Thomas Eppel, Jeffery Guyse, and L. Robin Keller

Assessing the Bioavailability of Arsenic from CCA-Impacted Soils for Use in Risk Assessment
Y. W. Lowney, A. D. Nicholson, G. C. Hook, and S. Severn

Assessing the Ecological Risks of Dam Removal
P. J. Sheehan, R. J. Wenning, B. D. Wright, N. M. King, D. J. Paustenbach, and D. M. Becklin

Assessing the Production of SE-Positive Eggs
E. D. Ebel and W. D. Schlosser

Assessment and Management of Human Health Risk Due to Dioxin-Like Compounds in Japan
J. Nakanishi and K. Yoshida

ASTM and Its Role in Developing Good Risk Assessment Practices
T. J. Schruben

Audience Seeking and Processing of Information about Risks to the Great Lakes Ecosystem
R. J. Griffin, S. Dunwoody, K. Neuwirth, and J. Geise

Axiomatic Definitions of Risk
L. A. Cox, Jr.

Background Risks Associated With Exposure to N-Nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA): Is Something Amiss in the Regulation of This Chemical
P. J. Sheehan, D. Mathur, D. Dodge, and D. J. Paustenbach

Background Risks from Dietary Exposure to Di- (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalte (DEHP): Implications of Regulations in the Context of California’s Proposition 65
D. B. Mathur, D. G. Dodge, and D. J. Paustenbach

Background Risks to Children of Lead Exposures Around the House
J. Beach, D. Dodge, S. Pauwels, J. Samuelian, T. Long, and P. J. Sheehan

Barriers and Inroads to AIDS Dialogue in African American Religious Contexts
K. A. Swain

Basic Science and Risk Communication: Of the People, by the People, for the People
T. S. Peterson, J. P. Amaya, G. R. Bilyard, A. K. Harding, and C. Word

Bayesian Synthesis Approach to Assessing Exposure to PCBs in New Bedford Harbor, A
S. C. Bates, A. C. Cullen, and A. E. Raftery

Benchmark Approach for Continuous Endpoints: A Proposal for a Convenient Class of Models
W. Slob

Benchmark Concentration (BMC) Modeling Versus the NOAEL/LOAEL Approach: A Case Study With Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate
M. M. Greenberg and J. Gift

Benefits and Drawbacks of Multi-Site Agreements Under PA’s Land Recycling Program: A Case Study
K. C. Fromme and J. J. Mahfood

Biomonitoring Studies and Surveys
B. A. Shurdut and J. H. Ross

Bureaucrat, the Scientist, and the Citizen: A Risk Assessment of the Columbia River, The
Douglas Mercer

Calibration of Expert Judgment in Exposure Assessment: Personal Exposure to Benzene
K. D. Walker, P. Catalano, J. Hammitt, and J. S. Evans

Can Risk Assessments Conclude That There Is No Risk?
D. M. Kammen, R. L. Goble, and D. B. Hattis

Can Science and Risk Analysis Overcome Legacies?
J. Karr

Carcinogenicity Risk Assessment of 1,3-Butadiene Based on Occupational Studies
J. Liccione and E. Anderson

Case Study of Risk-Based Management Decisions Using Individual Risk Appraisal, A
C. A. Williams, A. Rawa, A. Wiman, and R. W. Freeman

Challenges in the Management of Faster-Better-Cheaper Space Missions and Analytical Tools
E. Paté-Cornell and R. Dillon

Characterization of Risks Associated with the Use of Propoxur
R. C. Cochran, J. R. Sanborn, C. A. Aldous, and K. F. Pfeifer

Characterization of the Relationship Between Salmonella Levels in Shell Eggs and Handling Scenarios
H. K. Latimer, L. A. Jaykus, R. A. Morales, P. Cowen, and D. Crawford-Brown

Characterizing the Reference Dose/Minimal Risk Level/Allowable Daily Dose in a Quantitative Framework of Uncertainty and Variability
P. S. Price and R. E. Keenan

Chemical Guide: Using the Internet to Communicate Chemical Plant Information
J. M. Solyst

Chemical Methods to Estimate Bioavailable Arsenic in Contaminated Soils and Solid Media
R. R. Rodriguez, N. T. Basta, S. W. Casteel, and L. W. Pace

Choosing Distributional Forms for Use in Monte Carlo Exposure Assessments
M. A. Youngren and S. H. Youngren

Citizenship and Participation: A Case Study from the Canadian Blood Transfusion Service
Wesley Dean

Communicating Public Health Risks from the Bottom-Up: A Look at the South and Southwest Philadelphia Environmental Health Characterization Study
M. A. Fox and J. S. Litt

Communicating to Policymakers: Global Environmental Change and Cryptosporidium in Drinking Water
Ann Bostrom

Communicating Worst-Case Scenarios: Challenges and Research-Supported Options
K. E. Rowan

Community Empowerment Theory of Risk Management
J. P. Sah

Community Representation and Risk Management at BRAC Facilities
L. G. Cain and J. N. Skibinski

Comparative Risk Assessment Method to Evaluate Impacts of Portuguese Industrial Waste Disposal, A
J. A. Shatkin, J. M. Palma-Oliviera, C. A. Patton, and C. Saraiva

Comparing Cleanup Costs to Risks for Selected USAF Pump and Treat Remediation Systems
Elizabeth Maull, B. West, and T. Jasek

Competing Issues in Contaminated Site Risk Assessment: A Case Study
S. M. Hoover and R. A. Hill

Concept of the Russian Change-Over to Stable Development: From "Absolute" Safety to the "Acceptable" Risk and Risk Management
V. A. Akimov, I. I. Kuz’mine, and N. A. Makhutov

Concepts Associated With Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems
G. Whelan, K. J. Castleton, J. W. Buck, B. L. Hoopes, and M. A. Pelton

Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Effect of Risk Communication on Consumer Purchasing Decisions, A
R. L. Beekman and L. Blake-Hedges

Confidence Level for the Product of Uncertainty Factors
D. W. Gaylor, R. L. Kodell, and J. J. Chen

Congressional Interest in Risk Assessment Legislation
Paul R. Noe

Consideration of Metabolism and Mechanistic Data in the Carcinogenicity Risk Assessment of 1,3-Butadiene
E. Anderson and J. Liccione

Consideration of Sensitive Subgroups in Noncancer RfD And RfC Assessments
J. S. Gift and G. L. Foureman

Considerations on Methods and Strategies for Risk Communication Addressed to the General Population Exposed to Adverse Effects Due to Industrial Activities
C. Vollono, R. Latella, L. Lauria, and A. Bastone

Constrained Mathematics and the Repeated Variable Problem
J. A. Cooper, Scott Ferson, and Douglas K. Cooper

Consumers’ Knowledge and Perceptions of Alternative Agricultural Systems: Survey Results
P R. D. Williams, J. K. Hammitt, and G. M. Gray

Contribution of Butadiene to Smoking Induced Leukemia Mortality, The
M. R. Schulz, J. E. Korte, I. Hertz-Picciotto, and L. M. Ball

Contribution of Interpersonal Communication to the Effects of a Campaign on Working Safely
G. A. J. van der Rijt

Coping With Risk-Induced Stigma: Challenges and Opportunities
Howard C. Kunreuther and Paul Slovic

Cost-Benefit and Risk-Risk Analyses in EPA’s New Standards for Ozone and PM2.5
J. B. Wiener and G. E. Marchant

Cost-Effectiveness of Lifesaving Interventions in Japan, The
A. Kishimoto, M. Gamo, T. Oka, and J. Nakanishi

CRESP As an Experiment in a Risk-Based Approach to Obtaining Information for Decision Making
B. D. Goldstein, C. Powers, J. Moore, E. Faustman, and A. Upton

Cross-Agency Collaboration for Chemical Mixtures and Multistressor Risk Assessment
L. G. Cain

Cryptosporidium Risk Communication for Drinking Water Utilities
M. J. Small, B. Fischhoff, E. A. Casman, and C. R. Palmgren

Danger! Toxic Reporting: A Case Study of the Benzene Barge Spill on the Mighty Mississippi
S. F. Duhe

Data Based Comparison of Single Species and Model Ecosystems Sensitivity, A
D. J. Versteeg, S. E. Belanger, and G. J. Carr

Data-Generating Process for Measures of Relative Toxicity: Implications for Risk Assessment, The
K. P. Brand, L. Rhomberg, and J. S. Evans

Defining the Interface Between Economics and Risk Assessment
M. A. Tumeo

Derivation of a Drinking Water Action Level
M. Whittaker, L. Bestervelt, and G. Ball

Derivation of Risk-Based Cleanup Levels for Noncarcinogens: Methods and Science Policy Implications
S. Erdal and I. MacFarlane

Determinants of Public Involvement Among Residents Living Near the Savannah River Site
S. Brown and B. Williams

Developing Distributions of Annual Average Concentration with Dependency Among Daily Values
A. C. Cullen and C. S. Bretherton

Developing Risk-Based Screening Levels at Petroleum Release Sites
D. J. Vorhees and W. H. Weisman

Developing Salient Food -- Risk Communication for Different Hazards
L. J. Frewer and S. Miles

Development of a Framework for Incorporation of Multiple Stressors in Ecological Risk Assessment
S. A. Ferenc and J. A. Foran

Development of Environmental Risk Management Methodology in New Zealand, The
F. Perrot and R. B. Keey

Development of Generic Recreational Soil Cleanup Criteria
R. S. Berger and B. C. Venman

Development of Risk-Based Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Inorganic Fertilizers
M. K. Jones, L. R. Shull, M. A. Bowland, S. A. Klasing, and S. D. Wong

Developmental Determinants of Risk-Related Cognition Among School-Aged Children
R. A. de Blaquiere and Bryan Williams

Dietary Exposure to Pesticides: Comparison of Empirical and Probability Distribution Estimates
D. Baugher

Discussion on Harmonisation of Uncertainty Analysis in Human Health Risk Assessment
T. G. Vermeire, H. Stevenson, M. N. Pieters, W. Slob, and B. C. Hakkert

Distribution of Animal-to-Human Uncertainty Factors
Michael Dourson

Distributions of Individual Susceptibility Among Humans for Toxic Effects -- For What Fraction of Which Kinds of Chemicals and Effects Does the Traditional 10-fold Factor Provide How Much Protection?
D. B. Hattis

Dose-Response Modeling for Nitrate and Chloral Hydrate: Use of Data from Sensitive Subpopulations
L. T. Haber, B. C. Allen, and A. Bathija

Dose-Response Relationships for Cancer Outcomes Derived from Occupational Epidemiologic Studies: How Useful for Low-Dose Extrapolation?
G. Goodman

Drinking Water Odours and Health Risk Perception
C. G. Jardine, S. E. Hrudey, and N. Gibson

Ecological Risk Assessment Simulation and Education
R. Menning

Economic Implications of Building a New Tritium Accelerator at the Savannah River Nuclear Weapons Site
M. Greenberg, M. Frisch, L. Solitare, and K. Lowrie

Effect of Dose on Dermal Absorption from Liquid and Solid Vehicles
A. L. Bunge

Effect of Skin Contact and Contact Frequency on Dermal Absorption from Soil and Dust, The
G. Keating and K. Bogen

Effects of Information and Procedural Guidelines on Lay Rankings of Health and Safety Risks
K. M. Morgan

Effects on Risk: Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters Used for Determining Risk of Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities
R. O. Richter, B. D. Kerger, A. Mena, and G. E. Corbett

Eliciation of Expert Judgments: Some Empirical Observations
Thomas Eppel, Jeffery Guyse, and Detlof von Winterfeldt

Empirical Research Strategies for Investigating Participatory Risk Evaluation
T. Nyerges, C. Drew, N. Hedley, and C. Hendricksen

Environmental Impact Statements -- Risk Perception, Decision Making, and Environmental Risks
J. N. Follin

Environmental Risk Communication and Decision Making: Lessons Learned from the Real World
M. C. von Braun

Environmental Risk Management As a Regulatory Tool: The New Zealand Experience
J. D. Gough and S. J. Thornton

Environmental Risk Management: The Road Less Traveled
G. R. Biddinger, R. P. Brown, J. Durda, W. R. Gala, M. C. Harrass, C. A. Pittinger, and R. G. Stahl

EPA’s Residual Risk Report to Congress: Overview and Status
D. A. Pagano and K. A. Rimer

Epidemic of Epidemiology? Cancer Clusters Reported to State Health Departments, An
C. W. Trumbo and J. Edy

Estimating and Valuing the Population Risk Due to Benzene from Vehicle in Japan
H. Kajihara, S. Ishizuka, S. Masunaga, and J. Nakanishi

Estimating Health Impacts from Multiple Contaminant Sources at the US DOE Pantex Plant
M. E. Kelley, F. Snyder, D. Barton, J. W. Buck, and D. L. Strenge

Estimating Long-Term Food Consumption Rates from Short-Term Data: A Numerical Study
A. S. Kao and D. K. Waylett

Estimating Subsistence Ingestion Rates of Moose and Caribou in a Remote Village in Alaska
A. L. Veilleux, T. J. Garlock, and P. D. Birkner

Estimating the Costs of Pathogen Controls in the FDA Juice HACCP Regulations: A Monte Carlo Analysis
C. R. Ford McLaughlin and D. J. Zorn

Estimation of Hazardous Concentrations from Bimodal Species Sensitivity Distributions Using Bayesian Statistics
J. S. Jaworska and T. Aldenberg

Estimation of Risks of Severe Technogenic Accidents Based Upon Probabilistic Theory of Extreme Events
A. V. Popov, A. A. Bykov, and V. Akimov

Evaluating Lead Exposures and Risks in Older Children
C. Petito Boyce

Evaluating Radiation Protection Measures Using Socio-Cognitive Models
P. T. Allen

Evaluating Risk Communication: In Search of a Gold Standard
J. K. Hammitt

Evaluation of the Physical Hazards Associated With Two Remedial Alternatives at a Superfund Site
P. K. Scott, A. Pittignano, M. Fredrick and B. L. Finley

Experience in the Priority Substances Program -- Implications for Definition of Reference or Tolerable Dose/Concentration
M. E. Meek

Exploring Environmental Issues: Focus on Risk
L. Iozzi, F. Gallagher, A. Messinger, and S. Soyka

Exposure Assessment of Verotoxin-Producing E.Coli O157 Via Beef and Beef Products in The Netherlands
M. J. Nauta and A. E. Heuvelink

Exposure Assessment Research to Inform Decisions at Department of Energy Sites
L. F. McGrath and P. Georgopoulos

Facts and Values: Characterizing Analytical Perspectives in Environmental Risk Debates
T. J. Keating

Feasibility of Probabilistic Methods in Risk Assessment of Industrial Chemicals in the EU
T. Jager, M. G. J. Rikken, P. Van der Poel, and T. G. Vermeire

Fish Consumption, Fish Advisories, and Risk from Fishing Along the Savannah River: Conflicting Information Base
J. Burger and M. Gochfeld

Five Dimensions of Scientific Testimony in Court
K. M. Verdeal

Food Production, Processing, and Distribution As Selective Pressures for the Adaptation and Emergence of Bacterial Pathogens
A. J. Miller

Food Quality Protection Act: An Industry Perspective of Aggregate Exposure Assessment, The
C. S. Barrow, B. Shurdut, C. Breckenridge, R. Layton, R. Jones, and D. Robinson

Formaldehyde Risk Assessment Using a Distributed Transport Model to Predict Dose in the Nasal Lining
P. M. Schlosser, D. B. Janszen, J. S. Kimbell, and P. Lilly

Formulating Messages Which Promote Informed Decision-Making
C. W. Scherer

Formulation of a Dose-Response Equation for Human Illness from Salmonella Enteritidis
R. M. McDowell and A. R. Baker

Framework for a Regulatory Dose Response Relative Risk Model
K. E. von Stackelberg and A. Q. Eschenroeder

General Theory of Risk Redistribution
R. A. Williams

Generalization of Rankings for Hazardous Waste Disposal/Management Factors by County and Economic Dependency, A
M. A. Khan and B. Williams

Generating a Family of Human Non-Typhoid Salmonellosis Dose-Response Curves Informed by Animal Data
M. E. Coleman and H. M. Marks

Generic Risk and Fate Analysis for Mercury at Natural Gas Meters
L. J. N. Bradley and M. W. Gerath

GENII Version 2 Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System in Frames
B. A. Napier, D. L. Strenge, and J. V. Ramsdell Jr.

Getting Communities the Resources and Tools Necessary for Assessing and Managing Risks
T. H. Brennan and D. G. Lynch

Gleaning Ecological Risks from Sediment Toxicity Tests
B. L. McGee

Good and Bad Sides of RBCA, The
D. Elsenheimer and D. Huff

Harmonizing Chemical and Radiation Risk-Reduction Strategies: A Science Advisory Board Commentary
D. G. Barnes and S. L. Brown

Health and Ecological Risk Assessment in the Slovak Republic
A. Gondova

How Economic Analysis Can Better Intersect With Risk Assessment: What Needs To Be Done?
R. Meekhof

How the Public Perceives, Processes and Interprets Cancer Risk Information
A. E. Lubenow, E. Eisner, D. Bloom, M. Fancher, B. Spicher, and F. Donodeo

How Thresholds Affect Risk Assessment, Management, and Communication
R. M. Putzrath

Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for Uses of Steel Slag
K. A. Fehling, D. M. Proctor, and E. C. Shay

Hypothesis Testing of Model Structures Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models for Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether and Tert-Amyl Alcohol
A. S. Collins, S. C. J. Sumner, S. J. Borghoff, and M. A. Medinsky

If Uncertainty Analysis Is Good, Are All Point Estimates Bad? OSHA’s Methylene Chloride Regulation
A. M. Finkel

Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems: An Expert Elicitation of Terrestrial Ecologists
M. G. Morgan and L. F. Pitelka

Impacts of Regulatory Reform on Analytic Practices
David G. Holdsworth

Implementation of Aggregate Exposure Assessments by EPA -- An Update and Regulatory Perspective
E. A. Doyle

Implementing PRA at EPA: The View of a Regional Risk Assessor
T. W. Simon

Implications of Improved Understanding of Soil Interactions to Risk Assessment
D. Kosson and P. Georgopoulos

Implications of Uncertainty for Establishing Protection Standards for Beryllium
T. K. Takaro, R. A. Ponce, E. M. Faustman, G. S. Omenn, and S. M. Bartell

Importance of Skin Concentration in Assessing Dermal Absorption Potential
J. N. McDougal and W. H. Weisman

In Risk Assessment and Brownfields: A Tool for Evaluation and Communication
J. S. Applegate

Incorporating Risk Concepts Into Performance-Based Building and Fire Regulation Development: Phase I - Conceptual Approach
B. J. Meacham

Incorporating Tribal Eco-Cultural Perspectives Into Environmental Assessment and Management
B. L. Harper and S. G. Harris

Independent, External Peer Review of Perchlorate RfD and Toxicity Studies
P. C. Grevatt

Index of Harm for Exposure to a Combination of Radiation and Chemical Pollutants, An
S. B. Curtis, S. M. Bartell, E. M. Faustman, and W. C. Griffith

Individual Variability of Exposure Within Fractionated Areas in Risk Assessment of Air Pollutants
M. Gamo, K. Ohno, H. Higashino, and J. Nakanishi

Indoor Simulated Residential Chamber (SRC) Approaches to Exposure Monitoring, and Results of Illustrative Studies
R. E. Rogers, G. K. Whitmyre, J. H. Driver, and M. D. Pandian

Integrated Environmental Decisionmaking: New Tools and New Process for a New Generation
T. Miller, G. Matanoski, D. Barnes, and S. Sanzone

Integrated Framework for Collaborative Risk Evaluation Using Geographic Information Systems
C. H. Drew and T. L. Nyerges

Integrated Risk Process: A Comprehensive Approach to Risk Science, The
J. E. Till and S. L. Sharp

Integrating Demographics, Exposure Factors, and Susceptibility in Time-Series Probabilistic Risk Models
J. Swartout and G. Rice

Integrating Dose-Response and Economic Impact Assessments
C. Nardinelli

Integration of Residential Exposure With Dietary and Drinking Water Exposures: Aggregate and Cumulative Exposure Assessment and Risk Analysis Under FQPA
M. E. Ginevan and R. L. Sielken

Interim Nature of the EPA Draft Cancer Risk Characterization for 1,3-Butadiene Based on Human Epidemiological Data, The
R. L. Sielken

Interpretation of Non-Linear Dose-Response Curves: Lung Cancer in Workers Exposed to Arsenic Via Inhalation
I. Hertz-Picciotto

Interpreting Adequacy of Uncertainty Factors in the Context of ADI/RfD Use
James D. Wilson

Inverse Relationship Between Perceived Risk and Perceived Benefit Under Time Pressure, The
M. L. Finucane and P. Slovic

Is TCDD a Threshold Carcinogen? A Quantitative Analysis of the Epidemiological Data
C. R. Kirman, S. M. Hays, Lesa Aylward, N. J. Karch, and D. J. Paustenbach

Issue of Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer -- Exploration of Three Potential Paths to Resolution, The
D. B. Hattis

Just Say No: The Risks of Risk Assessment
P. Slovic

Linking Molecular Epidemiology and Risk Science: Applications for Exposure Assessment
P. Locke, T. Burke, C. Rohde, J. Samet, and J. Groopman

Liver Adenomas and Carcinomas: Tumor Classification and Implication for Bioassay Interpretation
I. Linkov, A. Shagiahmetov, R. Wilson, and G. M. Gray

Making Decisions About Risk: Organizational Responsiveness to Risk Stakeholders
C. Chess

Managing Long-Term Risk Through Stewardship: A Stakeholder Approach
D. Sarno

Managing Pandora’s Open Box: Labeling As Risk Displacement
S. H. Priest

Managing Uncertainty
R. E. Kasperson

Mandates for Balanced and Independent Peer Review Panels, The
S. Lewis

Mass Communication and Public Understanding of Environmental Risks: The Case of Global Warming
F. J. Clark, K. R. Stamm, and P. Reynolds-Eblascas

Mechanistic Model Predicts Observed Nonlinear Radon/Lung-Cancer Risk Relation
K. T. Bogen

Media, the Public and EPA’s Draft Dioxin Report, The
S. M. Friedman and B. Egolf

Mediation and Court Litigation: The Social Legitimacy of Underlying Fairness Discourses
Catherine Zwetkoff

Medical Testimony in Toxic Injury Cases: Bridging the Gap Between Science and Law
S. R. Poulter

Merging Technical and Institutional Issues in Environmental Decision Making
Louise L. Wells and William E. Kastenberg

Methodology Issues in Evaluating Cumulative Risks in the Chicago Metropolitan Area
J. P. Butler, L. A. Nieves, H. H. Hartmann, and C. Braverman

Methods for Risk Assessment of Pesticides in the Diet
B. E. Mileson, S. S. Olin, J. A. Foran, E. Julien, L. Barraj, and B. Petersen

Microbial Dose-Response Research Under the Food Safety Initiative
Wes Long, Bob Buchanan, and Dick Whiting

Model for Stakeholder Contribution to the Peer Review Process of Controversial Technical Issues
D. A. Canter, W. Wood, P. Grevatt, and D. E. Patton

Model of Salmonella Enteritidis in Egg Products Processing, A
A. Hogue

Modeling Approach to Establish an Air Monitoring Plan for Worker Exposure During Site Remediation
D. Y. Chong and W. H. Curley

Modeling Dose-Response for Illness from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs
A. R. Baker and R. M. McDowell

Modeling Links Between Administered Dose of 5-Fluorouracil and Fetal Nucleotide Pool Perturbation
R. W. Setzer

Monte Carlo Simulation Probabilistic Risk Assessment Using Site-Specific Exposure Duration Data, A
K. E. Bauman, J. C. Cozzie, and T. W. Simon

Mt. Pinatubo Experience -- How Third World Politics Characterizes Risk, Giving False Sense of Security Which in Itself Constitutes a Hazard, The
C. R. Villamin

Multimedia Modeling and Risk Assessment
J. L. Regens, K. O. Obenshain, and C. Travis

Multi-Pathway, Multi-Route Residential Exposure Modeling: An Improved Approach for Dermal Exposure Assessment
M. D. Pandian, J. H. Driver, and G. K. Whitmyre

Municipal Model of the Social Cost-Effectiveness of Mandating Residential Fire Sprinklers, A
Kathy A. Notarianni, Lester Lave, and P. Fischbeck

National Arsenic Intake Study: A Probabilistic Approach, The
D. B. Menzel, M. D. Dillencourt, D. M. Meacher, L. Bic, R. A. Schoof, D. W. Cragin, and C. H. Farr

Nature of Business Risk, The
M. L. Martens and K. R. MacCrimmon

New Approaches to Temporal Issues in Human Health Risk Assessment
E. M. Faustman, S. M. Bartell, R. A. Ponce, G. van Belle, and W. C. Griffith

New Assay for DNA Damage -- Potential Breakthrough for Cancer Risk Assessment
S. E. Hrudey and X. C. Le

New Capabilities and Applications on Mepas 4.0 in Frames
J. W. Buck, K. J. Castleton, J. P. McDonald, and M. A. Pelton

New Paradigm for Economics in Environmental Protection
H. Stallworth

New Perspectives on the Relationship Between Formaldehyde and Lung Cancer
J. E. Korte, I. Hertz-Picciotto, M. R. Schulz, and L. M. Ball

New Risk Analysis Requirements Through the World Trade Organization
V. R. Walker

New Risk-Based, Object-Oriented Simulation System, A
I. Miller, R. Kossik, and C. Voss

Newspaper Coverage of Risk at Two Major US Nuclear Weapons Sites: A Content Analysis
L. M. Waishwell and K. Lowrie

Occurrence of Perchlorate in Groundwater and Surface Water Supplies in the United States
K. P. Mayer

On-Farm Module of the Pathway to Assess Farm-to-Table Risks of E.Coli 0157:H7 in Hamburger
M. Powell, R. Christenson, and E. Ebel

Opening Pandora’s Box: Risk Prototypes Across Perceived Time
L. K. Dobbs

Operational Redefinition of the Reference Dose, An
J. Swartout

OPPT’s Risk Screening Environmental Indicators Model
N. Bouwes, S. Hassur, S. Keane, and B. Firlie

Outdoor Residential Exposure Measurements and Monitoring Studies
D. Eberhart

Overall Human Exposure Based on Spatial Range and Persistence
D. H. Bennett, W. E. Kastenberg, and T. E. McKone

Overview and History of Perchlorate: Formation of the Interagency Steering Committee (IPSC)
Lt. Col. Dan Rogers

Overview of Applied Environmental Futures Research, An
S. C. Keach

Overview of Ongoing Industry-Sponsored Residential Exposure Monitoring Research Programs
L. A. Fell

Overview of the Lake Wabamun Science and Public Consultation Program
S. M. Swanson, R. Robinson, and M. Johns

Participatory Decisionmaking Based on Findings of Screening and Baseline Ecological Risk Assessments and Remedial Actions at the Former Fort Benjamin Harrison
B. Cornaby, D. McDaniel, C. Hadden, P. Patel, R. Blume-Weaver, L. Wright, J. Smith, B. Jones, K. Mason-Smith, A. Atkins, L. Tannebaum, M. Litwin, and S. Sobiech

Pathway Analysis to Assess Farm-to-Table Risks of E. Coli 0157:H7 in Hamburger
P. Coleman, P. Frenzen, I. S. Kim, J. Scott, and T. Roberts

PBTK Model of Methylmercury Toxicity in the Fetal Rat
T. A. Lewandowski, S. M. Bartell, C. H. Pierce, R. A. Ponce, and E. M. Faustman

Perception of Time As a Metric in Risk Characterization
B. Williams and B. D. Goldstein

Perception of Wastewater Treatment Plant Failure on Environmental Discharge Compliance
J. A. Guy, G. K. Morse, and J. N. Lester

Perchlorate: Policy and Regulatory Considerations Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996
M. T. Osinski

Perspective on Quantitative Methods for Aggregate Risk Assessments Under the Food Quality Protection Act, A
R. L. Sielken

Pharmacokinetic Modeling Considerations for Examining Perchlorate Induced Inhibition of Iodide Uptake in the Thyroid Gland
J. W. Fisher and Kung Yu

Physician Communication with Patients Regarding Risks of Side Effects in Cancer Clinical Trials
T. L. Albrecht, D. Eaton, L. Rivera, R. Strongbow, C. Blanchard, and J. Ruckdeschel

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling of Ethylene Glycol Ethers and Acetates
S. M. Hays, T. R. Tyler, C. R. Kirman, R. Corley, and M. L. Gargas

Potential Health Risks from Urban Infrastructure Activities
R. Zimmerman

Practical Problems with the Precautionary Principle
S. L. Brown

Predicting the Influence of Inoculum Size on Microbial Spoilage Rate in a Model Food System
D. W. Schaffner and M. K. Llaudes

Preliminary Site Characterization of the Rudnaya Pristan-Dalnegorsk Mining District, Russian Far East
Susan M. Spalinger, Margrit C. von Braun, Ian von Lindern, Nadia Khristoforova, and Anatoli Kachur

Preparation Segment
W. Schlosser, D. Soderberg, K. Ralston, and C. Custer

Preparing Technical Experts for Public Outreach
J. Z. Temple and S. S. Bath

Principles of Good Risk Assessment Practice
S. A. Foster, P. C. Chrostowski, and G. Charnley

Probabilistic Methods of Risk Estimating and Risk Control. Minimizing Cost of Acceptable Risk Achievement
B. S. Fleishman

Probabilistic Risk Based Closure
L. D. Braddy and S. B. Ellingson

Project IDRIS -- The Relationships Between Environmental Levels of Pollutants and Their Biological Effects
I. Holoubek, L. Dusek, M. Machala, A. Kozubík, and J. Helesic

Probabilistic Characterization of RfD: Empirical Data to Develop Uncertainty Factor Distributions
S. J. S. Baird

Public Acceptance of Controversial Technologies (PACT) Model: Dialogs and Decision Making
A. K. Wolfe, D. J. Bjornstad, and M. Russell

Public Control of Ecological-Genetic Risks As a Constituent for Development of the Democratic Society in Russia After the Chernobyl Disaster
I. I. Suskov, A. I. Glouchtchenko, V. A. Shevchenko, and B.T. Surikov

Public Perception of Projects Involving Human Health, Ecological, and Quality-of-Life Impacts
P. Fischbeck and J. N. Follin

Public Preferences Toward Environmental Risks: The Case of THMS
Richard T. Carson and Robert Cameron Mitchell

Public Response to the Notion of Drinking Water Quality Reports: Initial Survey Data
B. B. Johnson

Quantitative Evaluation of Alternative Mechanisms of MEHP Blood and Testes Disposition in Rats
D. A. Keys, D. G. Wallace, and R. B. Conolly

Quantitative Risk Assessment Model for Predicting the Level of Infection with Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) Within the GB Cattle Herd, A
M. Wooldridge and L. A. Kelly

Radiation and Chemical Risk Management: Comparing and Contrasting Legal Approaches to Public Health Protection
P. Locke

Radioactive Waste Management in France: A Technical and Responsible Project for Long-Term Management
Yves Kaluzny, Dominique Auverlot, Emmanuel Boissac, and Gerald Ouzounian

Radionuclides Transport in Natural Ecosystems: Spatial Dynamic Modeling for Risk Assessment
V. Taranenko, D. Burmistrov, and I. Linkov

RBCA Protocol for Miami International Airport
S. P. Pack and A. Khan

Reanalysis of Data from a Study of Diesel Exhaust and Lung Cancer in Railroad Workers
K. S. Crump

Reasonable Person Standard for the 21st Century: The Legal Connection Between Risk and Action in a Business Decision Context, A
A. Bryson

Recent and Ongoing USEPA Research Programs on Residential Exposures
C. Dary and C. Saint

Re-Evaluation of the Potential Carcinogenicity of Lindane
P. C. Chrostowski and G. Charnley

Regulatory and Legislative Issues Impacting Toxicology as the Basis for Risk Assessment
J. G. Keller

Relating the Fundamentals of Human Risk Perception to Waste Management at DOE Sites
C. Powers

Relationship Between Relative Risk and "More Likely Than Not" Causation in Toxic Tort Cases, The
R. S. Carruth and B. D. Goldstein

Relative Roles of Cytolethality and Mutagenicity in the Carcinogenicity of Formaldehyde
R. B. Conolly and R. J. Preston

Relevance of Risk Perception Research for Megan’s Law, The
J. C. Fox and R. Gowda

Relevant Skin Bioavailability Data for Risk Assessment
R. C. Wester

Representing the Possibility of Extreme Events Using Process Trees
S. W. Eisenhawer and T. F. Bott

Reproductive Hazard Identification: Findings and Limitations in Studies of Women Exposed to Benzene
A. J. Dunn, L. Zeise, and M. Golub

Research on Risk Analysis and Perception as Instruments of Risk Management in Portugal
J. M. Palma-Oliveira and J. A. Shatkin

Residual Risk Data Quality Issues
D. A. Amaral, M. G. Dusetzina, and S. A. Walata

Revealed Preferences and Environmental Risks: Lessons Learned from Two Policy Debates
R. A. Cantor

Review of Methodologies for Remedial Standards in New England: Surface Water Protection Criteria
J. S. Merkle and T. R. Kline

Review of Storm Water Monitoring Results and Evaluation of Permit Effectiveness
Richard M. Rollins, Richard W. Canavan, and Kathryn K. Chellman

Revising Strontium-90 Radiation Standards for Environmental Cleanup
W. C. Griffith, S. B. Curtis, S. M. Bartell, and E. M. Faustman

RF Safety: Creating Culturally Neutral Risk Communications on Wireless Base Stations
J. E. Ehrgott and D. T. Sean

Risk Analysis of BTEX from Frequent Low-Level Oil Spills in the Estuarine Environment
L. S. Zach and R. B. Keey

Risk Assessment as a Liability Allocation Tool
Brian L. Murphy

Risk Assessment, Communication and Management: An Integrated Approach to Facility Risk Management Planning Under Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
B. B. Witherell, D. Goldstein, K. Henry, and P. Nogar

Risk Assessment for Petroleum Hydrocarbons Using Alaska Draft Guidance
C. J. Mattia, D. Y. Chong, and W. Curley

Risk Assessment for Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs, A
Richard C. Whiting

Risk Assessment Guidelines for EMFs
R. L. Goble, D. B. Hattis, D. Golding, H. S. Brown, D. Kammen, R. E. Kasperson, S. Ratick, P. Slovic, and A. Smith

Risk Assessment Guidelines for EMFs: A California Perspective
R. Neutra and V. Del Pizzo

Risk Assessment in the Courts: A Roadmap for Risk Analysts, 1998
J. S. Applegate and W. E. Wagner

Risk Assessment Models for the Prediction of the Levels of Residues of Veterinary Medicines in the Environment
L. A. Kelly, M. Taylor, and M. Wooldridge

Risk Assessment of Oil Sands Projects: Shaping the Assessment to Answer Relevant Questions
M. G. Rankin, J. Gulley, S. Mckeown, L. Mucklow, and I. Smith

Risk Assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs and Egg Products, A
A. Hogue, E. Ebel, A. Baker, W. Schlosser, R. Morales, R. Whiting, and R. McDowell

Risk Assessment of the Pink Hybiscus Mealybug from the Caribbean, A
C. E. Miller and L. W. H. Chang

Risk Assessment Technique in Deciding Problems of Environment and of Human Health in FSU and Europe
V. A. Eremenko, D. C. Bley, and J. Droppo, Jr.

Risk-Based Approach for a National Assessment, A
G. Whelan, G. F. Laniak, K. J. Castleton, B. L. Hoopes, and M. A. Pelton

Risk Communication in Practice - A Case Study in Western Australia
M. E. Farinha

Risk Communication: The Evaluation-Mediation Hypothesis
T. Reimer

Risk Comparisons: What Does the Public Want?
B. B. Johnson

Risk Education: Where Do We Go from Here?
M. Zint

Risk Estimation for Cohort of Children Exposed to Radiation in Consequence of the Chernobyl Accident
E. I. Bomko, A. E. Romanenko, and A. A. Bomko

Risk Management for Mediation Process in Case of Waste Management Dispute
K. Sato

Risk Management Framework for Decision-Making Under the Residual Risk Program, A
R. G. Hetes, K. A. Rimer, and D. A. Amaral

Risk, Media, and Public Policy
V. Holden and J. Johnson

Risk Perception, Risk Communication, and Environmental Justice in the Netherlands?
A. C. Halfacre

Risk Perception and Risk Regulation: Major Industrial Hazards and the Seveso II Directive
A. M. Brazier and G. P. Walker

Risk Perception in "Western" and "Eastern" Countries a Cross-Cultural Study
B. Rohrmann

Risk Perceptions, Environmental Values, and Willingness to Address Climate Change
R. E. O’Connor, R. J. Bord, and A. Fisher

Risk, Trust, and Democratic Theory
R. E. Kasperson and Jeanne X. Kasperson

Risks from Cesium-137 Ingestion: Comparison Among Approaches
M. Gochfeld and J. Burger

Risks Posed by PCBs in Non-Liquid Materials at Three Air Force Bases
K. Mitchell, K. Scruton, S. Just, T. Klaff, and T. Fagan

Role for the Mental Models Approach in Strategic Outreach, A
S. L. Thorne and G. E. Butte

Role of Comparative Risk in the Implementation of the Government Performance and Results Act
K. Kunzer and J. Solyst

Role of Economics in Ecological Risk Assessment: An Overview, The
M. E. Smith

Role of Exposure and Risk Assessment in New Regulatory Reforms: The Food Quality Protection Act, The
B. A. Shurdut and W. L. Chen

Safety Assessment to the Long-Term Exposure of Benzenehexachloride by Korean-Cabbage Ingestion
H. Lee, E. Yoon, S. Choi, K. S. Park, and K. P. Won

Science Policy Considerations in Developing a Risk-Based Regulatory Program
K. A. Rimer, D. A. Pagano, and R. G. Hetes

Scientists as Stakeholders in Community Risk Management Decisions: A Problem for Democratic Process
M. A. Kamrin and M. Aronoff

Selecting the Right Risk in Selecting an Intermodal Transfer Site
F. C. Dilger

Sensitivity Analysis for Categorical Regression Modeling of Acute Reference Exposures
J. A. Strickland and S. H. Su

Setting Priorities for Urban Environmental Health: An Evaluation of Risk Ranking and Scoring Methods
N. M. Shalauta, T. A. Burke, P. Hynes, D. Ozonoff, and R. Clapp

Should Reporters Use Risk as a Determinant of Environmental Coverage?
D. B. Sachsman

Significant Up-Coming Changes in the Application and Practice of Risk Assessment
D. J. Paustenbach and D. G. Dodge

Similarities and Differences in Chemical and Radiation Risk Management
N. Tran

Simulation of Attention and Resources Allocation in Risk Ranking
J. Long, B. Fischhoff, K. Florig, G. Morgan, M. Dekay, and P. Fischbeck

Simulation-Optimization Approach to Cost-Effective Sampling and Cleanup of Contaminated Areas, A
L. A. Cox, Jr., and K. N. Paige

Simulation Studies on the Effect of CYP2E1 Induction on Trichloroethylene Metabolism in Humans
Gina M. Pastino and J. Fisher

Slaughter/Processing Module of the Pathway Analysis to Assess Farm-to-Table Risks of E.Coli 0157:H7 in Hamburger
T. Roberts, J. Kuzma, I. Walls, and L. Cannon

Sources, Projected Emission Trends and Exposure Issues for 1,3 Butadiene
R. T. Paul

Speaking About Risk: The Impacts of Public Meetings on Participants’ Risk Perceptions
K. A. McComas

Special Issues in Risk Assessment Modeling for Living Organisms as Exemplified by Microbes in the Food Chain
R. Morales

Stakeholder Identification and Involvement on Perchlorate Issues
C. M. McCracken

Stakeholder Involvement in Assessing Regional Impacts from Climate Change
Ann N. Fisher

Stakeholder Involvement Processes: Evaluating Restoration Advisory Boards
S. L. Santos, C. Chess, and L. Geckle

Statistics and Judgment of Critical Effect in the Determination of RFDs
Michael Dourson

Status of Inter-Laboratory Analytical Methods Validation Study
D. T. Tsui

Stewardship Assessments for Site Closure (1): Moving Beyond Risk Based Decision Making
B. L. Harper and S. G. Harris

Stewardship Assessments for Site Closure (2): Landscape-Level Risk Management
S. G. Harris and B. L. Harper

Stigma and the Social Amplification of Risk: A Framework
R. E. Kasperson and Jeanne X. Kasperson

Stigmatization of Nuclear Science and Technology, The
J. Flynn

Straining the Gnat and Swallowing the Camel: The Importance of Scale and Uncertainty in Assessing Ecological Risk
T. S. Bridges

Strategies for Improving Communications with Health Consumers Using Mental Models of Breast Cancer and Mammography
S. J. Byram, B. Fischhoff, L. Schwartz, and S. Woloshin

Straw Man Proposal for a Quantitative Definition of the RfD, A
D. B. Hattis

Streamlining Ecological Risk Assessments Through Establishing Default Regional Assessment Endpoints
P. D. Birkner, R. A. Brewer, and L. Himmelbauer

Streamlining the Approach for Updating Cancer Potency Factors
S. Tamburello, C. R. Kirman, and M. L. Gargas

Strontium-90 Radiation Standards for Environmental Cleanup
W. C. Griffith, S. B. Curtis, S. M. Bartell, and E. M. Faustman

Structure-Activity Relationships for Nasal Toxicity Based on a Small Dataset of Gaseous Aromatics: Mediation of Activity by Electronic Properties and Molecular Weight
A. Richard, P. Boone, and M. Greenberg

Structure of Dose-Response Models in Public Health Risk Analysis
C. D. Carrington

Subsistence Fishing in the Southeast: Fish Consumption Rates Derived from Two Exposure Surveys
T. W. Simon

Summary of Lead Health-Related Issues at the Bunker Hill Superfund Site, A
I. H. von Lindern and M. C. von Braun

Survey of Children’s Interactions with Their Pets, A
S. H. Youngren, S. Asfoor, M. Rosenthal, and K. Youngren

Systematic Planning of Risk Communication: The Next Step, The
Jan M. Gutteling

Sweden’s Love Canal: Trust, Risk and the Hallandsĺs Disaster
R. E. Löfstedt

Tackling Risk Perception Within the Democratic Process: A Canadian Case Study
C. M. Purtill and M. H. Flowers

Targeted Toxicity Testing Program to Revise Provisional RfD for Perchlorate
A. M. Jarabek and D. R. Mattie

Teaching Risk Assessment to Children
B. Steinberg, B. Schlegel, D. Sheilds, A. R. Gotsch, and L. Weidner

Technical Review of Methodologies for State Remediation Standards in New England: Industrial Soils
K. R. Rogovin and T. R. Kline

Ten Propositions for Untangling Descriptive and Prescriptive Lessons in Risk Perception Findings
T. L. McDaniels

Three Examples of Public Participation in Environmental Decision Making
S. L. Sharp and J. E. Till

Time-Activity Data Sources and Utility
J. R. De Prospo and M. D. Pandian

Top Ten Risk Issues at Federal Facility Hazardous Waste Sites
C. A. Forgét, C. A. Davis, and T. L. Walker

Transport, Transformation, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Perchlorate
G. C. Long, R. C. Porter, M. D. Sprenger, and C. Callahan

Treatment Technologies for Perchlorate Reduction
E. T. Urbansky

Trial of Assessment of Relative Separatism Risk
S. G. Mironyuk

Trust Assessment
J. Flynn

Trust, the Economy, and Environmental Risk: An Exploratory Study of Risk Perceptions in Bourgas, Bulgaria
Ann Bostrom, Krassimira Paskaleva, and Richard Barke

UBC, An Analysis of the Risk Communication Efforts Surrounding NASA’s Cassini Mission to Saturn
J. L. Arvai

Uncertainty Analysis in the Regulations Assessment: The Case of Arsenic in Chile
R. O’Ryan and M. Díaz

Uncertainty Analysis via Monte Carlo: Does It Deliver What It Promises?
S. Ferson

Uncertainty Distribution Development for Probabilistic Risk Assessment
Zhaofeng Huang and Jan Swider

Uncertainty, Variability, Time Evolution and Discounting in Managing Groundwater-Driven Health Risk
R. M. Maxwell and M. D. Lowenthal

Unintentional Chemical Exposures from Consumer Products at Various Stages in Product Life: Assessment and Management of Potential Risks by Business Decision Makers
L. Rudenko and G. P. Thompson

Update on USEPA Guidelines/SOPs for Residential Exposure Assessment
J. Evans and J. Dawson

U.S. Coast Guard R&D Projects in Support of Risk-Based Decision Making
K. A. Hansen

US-Slovak Cooperation in Environmental Health Risk Assessment: Personal Exposure to Particles and NO2 in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
K. Hruba, E. Mihalikova, M. Brauer, E. Fabianova, A. Plzikova, M. Lendacka, P. Miskovic, J. Vandenberg, and A. Cullen

Use of Bench Top Laboratory Studies to Quantify Potential Health Risks to Mercury Vapors: A Case Study
J. M. Otani and D. M. Proctor

Use of Bioavailability Data for the Establishment of Alternate Cleanup Levels for Environmental Media
J. A. Bland, E. V. Sargent, L. Tyls, M. V. Ruby, P. Chrostowski, and T. Bingman

Use of Default Values in Risk-Based Regulation, The
V. M. Bier

Use of Mercury Vapor Flux Measurements for Reducing Uncertainty in the Evaluation of Inhalation Exposures
T. C. Bernhardt, D. B. Mathur, and P. S. Scott

Use of Multi-Media Models for Defining Persistence and Long-Range Transport of Chemicals
C. E. Cowan, T. F. Parkerton, and D. van de Meent

Use of Probabilistic Methods in Assessing Exposure To Metals In Soil Via Homegrown Produce; Comparison With Point Estimate
C. H. Stineman

Use of Quantile Graph Technique for Studying Technogene Extreme Events in Russia (from 1991 to 1996)
A. A. Bykov, A. V. Popov, V. Akimov, and R. T. Yuldashev

Use of Risk Assessment in Navy Deployment Toxicology, The
G. B. Briggs, W. Alexander, and K. R. Still

Use of Unsatisfactory Condition Reports in the Reliability Data Development for the Space Shuttle Main, The
J. Swider and Huang Zhaofeng

User Features of Framework for Frames
G. M. Gelston, G. Whelan, B. L. Hoopes, and R. Y. Taira

Using a Calendar Method to Assess Exposure to Pesticides Applied in the Home at Different Times
S. H. Youngren, C. Walls, L. M. Barraj, and B. M. Polakoff

Using a Probabilistic RfD to Assess Risk from Cumulative Dietary Exposure to Multiple Pesticides
E. A. Julien

Using Bioplume III to Support Natural Attenuation Decision for Tetrachloroethene and Trichloroethene
R. M. Menon, N. P. Brashear, and C. R. Kirman

Using Expert Elicitation to Develop a Quantitative Risk Assessment for Methylene Chloride
M. L. Gargas, C. R. Kirman, B. Rish, P. Dugard, and S. M. Hays

Using Monte Carlo Methods to Assess the Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure on the Analysis of Dose-Response in Epidemiologic Studies
L. T. Stayner, S. J. Gilbert, R. J. Smith, A. J. Bailer, and E. Garshick

Using the Courts to Improve the Accountability of Policy Decisions in Agency Risk Assessments
W. E. Wagner

Using the Interpretive Continuum As a Targeting Tool
R. N. Rimal

Utility of Various Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Constituents as Markers for ETS Exposure and Impact of Away-from-Work Exposure to ETS on Workplace Exposure
J. S. LaKind, D. Q. Naiman, R. A. Jenkins, M. E. Ginevan, and R. G. Tardiff

UVB-Induced Immunomodulation: Estimation of the Health Risk
J. Garssen, W. Slob, and H. van Loveren

Validating Airborne Chemical Exposure Assessment for Juries: Two Case Studies Involving Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Groundwater
B. D. Kerger and C. M. Teaf

Value of Biomarker Information in Aflatoxin Risk Management, The
R. C. Lee, S. M. Bartell, R. A. Ponce, W. H. Griffith, A. C. Cullen, and D. L. Eaton

Values in Risk Science and Policy-Making
Heather Douglas

What Determines Priorities During Liquidation of Extreme Situations
S. G. Kharchenko, A. Ŕ. Prokhozhev, V. A. Vladimirov, and N. A. Mukhutov

When Siting Principles Conflict
J. Baxter, J. Eyles, and S. Elliott

When Using Multivariate Data Analysis Techniques to Fingerprint Sources of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Doxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in the Environment
D. Dodge, R. Wenning, and J. Beach

Who Do Citizens Believe When Controversy Strikes? Using a Validated Scale to Measure Credibility
C. W. Trumbo and K. A. McComas

Why Do We Need a More Quantitative Definition of the RfD/C?
A. H. Stern

Why Humans Are So Bad at Interpreting Probabilities
S. Ferson and L. R. Ginzburg

Why the Society of Risk Analysis Should Debate Policies for Regulation of Very Long Term Risk
D. Okrent

Workshop Addressing the Similarities and Differences in Chemical and Radiation Risk Management
D. O’Conner