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 Risk Reports & Papers

This department lists risk-related reports, papers, and reviews and, when possible, links to their full texts.  Compiled by Mary Bryant and Amy Charlene Reed, RiskWorld staff. Send e-mail to or


Biofuels: Prospects, Risks, and Opportunities, the 2008 edition of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's annual publication The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA), states: "Biofuel policies and subsidies should be urgently reviewed in order to preserve the goal of world food security, protect poor farmers, promote broad-based rural development and ensure environmental sustainability." Read more about the report in the news release, and follow links to the full report and executive summary at the SOFA web site. (posted 10/10/08)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2008 Report on the Environment (ROE) asks important questions about trends in the U.S. environment over time and presents the best available, scientifically sound information on national environmental and human health trends critical to EPA's mission and of interest to the public. EPA's 2008 Report on the Environment: Highlights of National Trends (ROE Highlights) presents some of the key findings from the more comprehensive technical report in an easy to understand format for the general public to better understand trends in the nation's health and environment. The ROE web site provides links to PDF versions of both reports and an electronic presentation also referred to as eROE, with access to all the environmental trend data contained in both reports in one location and in a searchable format. The ROE web site is located at

Background: In 2001 the U.S. EPA began assembling, for the first time, the most reliable available indicators of national environmental and health conditions and trends that are important to its mission and initially presented these indicators in draft reports released in 2003. The 2008 ROE updates and improves the 2003 draft edition. EPA anticipates that the indicators comprising ROE's main content will be updated with new data points annually on the web if the data are available. Depending on what is available, new indicators may also be added to the ROE dynamic (ROE-D) web site. Full paper versions of the ROE and ROE-D are anticipated to be released every four years, with the next release scheduled for 2012. (posted 9/30/08)

Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies (Final Report), a report released by the U.S. EPA National Center for Environmental Assessment, summarizes some of the recent progress in characterizing uncertainty and variability in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models and their predictions for use in risk assessment. Links to the full report and related information are available at (posted 9/30/08)


The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2006 (and Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts) and The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996 are two documents maintained by the National Hurricane Center of the National Weather Service with regard to some of the most infamous hurricanes on record. One report examines United States impacts, while the other encompasses the entire Atlantic basin. Links to the most recent updates of the documents are located at (posted 9/11/08)


Environmental Remediation Drilling Safety Guideline, compiled by AntiEntropics, Inc., and funded by five major oil companies, provides a summary of industry practices and techniques to help drillers enhance safety performance, environmental performance, and overall project quality. An Adobe Acrobat™ PDF version of the free 132-page document is available in RiskWorld. More information is available in a news release, or download the document. (posted 5/24/05)

The Owner's Role in Project Risk Management, a report by the National Research Council's Committee for Oversight and Assessment of U.S. Department of Energy Project Management, under the auspices of the NAS Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, attempts to summarize what the committee believes constitutes excellence in project risk management. The objective of the report is to summarize the knowledge of project risk management needed by an owner's representative to understand both issues that require active owner participation and issues that require oversight of activities that are delegated to contractors. Read the full report(posted 3/21/05)

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004, the fifth biennial report in a series, updates a comprehensive review of scientific literature that the Institute of Medicine's Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides began conducting in 1992 to determine whether the veterans may be experiencing health effects associated with exposure to defoliants used in the Vietnam War, including Agent Orange and other herbicides or chemicals contaminating them. Links to the report released in 1994 and all of the updates are available here(posted 3/4/05)


The Post-Bhopal and Post-9/11 Transformations in Chemical Emergency Prevention and Response Policy in the United States (PDF file), by James C. Belke and Deborah Y. Dietrich of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, provides an historical perspective on how the U.S.'s approach to incident prevention and response at hazardous chemical facilities has been transformed since the Bhopal tragedy in 1984. This paper was presented at the International Conference on the 20th Anniversary of the Bhopal Tragedy, which was held in Kanpur, India, in December 2004. (posted 1/10/05)

The Role of Local Communities in Chemical Accident Prevention and Preparedness (PDF file), by Timothy R. Gablehouse of the Colorado Emergency Planning Commission, discusses how local emergency planning committees have "matured in focus over the intervening years since the Bhopal incident" and the events of September 11, 2001. The paper's abstract states: "There is a strong recognition that local communities working very closely with chemical handling facilities in their areas can directly and meaningfully reduce the threat of a chemical release incident, regardless of cause. Likewise, through similar means they can better prepare themselves to respond should an incident occur."  This paper was presented at the International Conference on the 20th Anniversary of the Bhopal Tragedy, which was held in Kanpur, India, in December 2004. (posted 1/10/05)

Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties, by the National Academies' Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, examines the human and natural causes of climate change, including greenhouse gases, aerosols, land-use change, and solar variability. Whereas emphasis to date has been on how these climate forcings affect global mean temperature, the report finds that regional variation and climate impacts besides temperature deserve increased attention. The report also identifies research that should be pursued to improve understanding of climate forcings. Read the full prepublication issue of this report on line. (posted 12/16/04)

"Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives," the 2004 version that the Inter-Agency Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR) launched in July 2004, is an unprecedented compilation of concrete examples of what people are doing to make the world a safer place. An indispensable guide for everyone interested in disaster risk reduction, humanitarian action, and sustainable development, the publication explores the ways in which the understanding of disaster management and risk has evolved over recent years and provides a comprehensive compilation of information on disaster risks around the world. (posted 7/27/04)

Transmission Pipelines and Land Use: A Risk-Informed Approach, anew report from the National Academies' Transportation Safety Board, examines safety issues related to energy pipelines and recommends how the federal government should make land-use decisions to minimize or mitigate risks to the public, pipeline workers, and the environment near existing and future pipelines. Read the full report on line. (posted 7/19/04)

Individual and Subpopulation Variations in Response to Toxic Chemicals: Factors of Susceptibility, a paper written by Timothy T. Iyaniwura when he was a 1998-2002 senior research fellow at Biomedical Research Centre, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland, reviews factors that should receive attention in defining the toxicity of chemicals within a population setting, with emphasis on those factors that may confer the greatest susceptibility to toxic effects. The full paper is published in RiskWorld. (posted 7/1/04)

Nuclear Waste Cleanup: DOE Has Made Some Progress in Cleaning Up the Paducah Site, but Challenges Remain, a U.S. General Accounting Office report to congressional committees that was released in April 2004, assesses how much money has been spent, the progress that has been made, and the challenges that remain in the cleanup of the U.S. government's uranium enrichment plant in Paducah, Kentucky. (In 1988, radioactive contamination was found in drinking water wells of residences near the plant.) The report (GAO-04-457) also includes recommendations that address the current issues delaying this massive project's completion. Read PDF versions of the full report and its highlights. (posted 4/2/04)

Nanotechnologies: A Preliminary Risk Analysis on the Basis of a Workshop Organized in Brussels on 1-2 March 2004 by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General of the European Commission (PDF version), a report produced by an invited international, interdisciplinary group of seventeen experts, examines the hazards, exposure, and risks to human and environmental health potentially associated with materials derived from nanotechnologies within the next 3–5 years. (posted 7/18/05)

Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development, a global report by the United Nations Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR), addresses the increasing impact of natural disasters on development and the acknowledgement of development paths as determinant configuration factors of disaster risk. The report promotes disaster risk reduction through identifying appropriate development policies integrating both disaster risk management and actions targeting the 8 Millennium Development Goals achievement. Read the report and a news release about the report (PDF version). (released 2/2/2004)


Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment, a report developed under the auspices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum, is the first step in a long-term effort to develop cumulative risk assessment guidance for the agency. Not intended as a guide for procedure nor a regulatory requirement, the report is an information document that "identifies the basic elements of the cumulative risk assessment process and provides a flexible structure for conducting and evaluating cumulative risk assessment, and for addressing scientific issues related to cumulative risk." Download PDF files of the full report and a fact sheet about the report, and read the Federal Register notice announcing the report's release. (posted 5/27/03)

World agriculture: towards 2015/2030, an FAO Perspective, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's latest global assessment of the long-term outlook for food and agriculture, updates and extends the last FAO assessment made in 1995. The projections, covering 140 countries and 32 crop and livestock commodities, analyze supply and demand for the major agricultural commodities and sectors, including fisheries and forestry. The final and summary reports and a news release are available on line. (posted 3/4/03)

Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases - Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, commissioned by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization from a team of 30 global experts, aims to identify new recommendations for governments on diet and exercise to tackle the ever increasing number of people who die each year from chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, and obesity. The report, which provides advice on ways of changing daily nutritional intake and increasing energy expenditure, will form the basis for national and regional bodies to develop specific guidelines on diet and exercise for their local communities. Read the executive summary in English (.doc file) or French (.doc file), the full report (PDF file), and a news release. (posted 3/3/03)

Mycotoxins: Risks in Plant, Animal, and Human Systems, a comprehensive report from the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), presents the most complete current information on mycotoxins, including mycotoxin-producing fungi; mycotoxin control in crops, foods, and feeds; mycotoxin-caused disease in humans and animals; mycotoxin testing, control, and international regulation; economics; and research and policy recommendations. Access the full report and related information on line. (posted 1/14/03)


Environmental Impacts of Livestock on U.S. Grazing Lands, an issue paper released by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), looks at the environmental impacts of grazing systems and provides guidance on land management tools. Access the full paper and related information on line. (posted 11/14/02)

The World Health Report 2002--Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life, based on one of the largest research projects ever undertaken by the World Health Organization, measures the amount of disease, disability, and death attributed to the most important human health risks in the world today and then calculates how to reduce the burden from those risks over the next 20 years. The report's Web site provides links to the full report in English and to report overviews in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish. Translations of the full report in all of these languages are forthcoming. (posted 10/30/02)

Economic Survey - United States 2002, published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, is available in part for free on the Internet. The survey describes the current recession, which follows the longest expansion on record in the United States, as "surprisingly mild" and addresses questions such as the following: is a sustained recovery underway; how should monetary policy react; how much has the fiscal position worsened; what are the main strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. health system; what have been the lasting social benefits of the 1990s expansion; and are sustainable development policies on track. Read the policy brief (PDF version) that summarizes the survey; and access links to the table of contents, assessment and recommendations, and key excerpts from the survey and to information on purchasing it. (posted 10/17/02)

Industry As a Partner for Sustainable Development - Finance and Insurance, a report released by UNEP's Finance Industry Initiatives and United Nations Environment Programme, says that risks associated with climate change are the foremost example of the challenge that insurers and reinsurers face today, since the majority of global economic losses related to natural disasters remains uncovered by public or private insurance. Read the news release about the report, or read the full report (PDF version). (posted 10/7/02)

World Report on Violence and Health, released by the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, is the first comprehensive report of its kind to address violence as a global public health problem. The report aims to raise awareness about the problem of violence globally, to make the case that violence is preventable, and to highlight the crucial role that public health has to play in addressing its causes and consequences. The report's Web page provides links to PDF versions of the full report, an abstract, and a summary, as well as other related material. A news release also provides information. (posted 10/4/02)

Beyond Johannesburg: Policies and Finance for Climate-Friendly Development, a policy brief written by Georg Caspary and David O'Connor for the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Development Centre, aims to suggest policy areas where developing countries could achieve sustainable development goals simultaneously, to identify options for financing climate-friendly investments from external sources, and to provide a rough guide to climate policy makers. The Development Centre is the interface between OECD member countries and the emerging and developing economies of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Read the full brief (PDF version). (posted 9/24/02)

Animals and Biotechnology, a report by the Animal and Biotechnology Working Group of the United Kingdom's Agriculture and Environment Biotechnology Commission, responds to the question of whether the UK's existing regulatory and advisory machinery can address current and future questions about biotechnology and animals, including genetic modification. The report concludes that there is an urgent need to prepare the ground rules before the possible arrival of genetically modified and cloned animals in order to avoid problems such as those that occurred when the public became aware of issues related to genetically modified crops and GM food. Read the report's full text (PDF version) and executive summary and a news release. (posted 9/3/02)

World Agriculture: Towards 2015/30, a United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report, summarizes the main findings of the organization's study assessing the prospects worldwide for food and agriculture, including fisheries and forestry, over the years to 2015 and 2030. An update and extension of the FAO global study, World Agriculture: Toward 2010, issued in 1995, the current study also presents the global long-term prospects for trade and sustainable development and discusses the issues at stake in these areas over the next 30 years. Read the main results and the summary report of World Agriculture: Towards 2015/30, in addition to a news release about the report and an interview with the report's editor, Jelle Bruinsma. (posted 8/20/02)

Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, a National Academy of Sciences report, responds to three major technical concerns that emerged when the U.S. Senate withheld ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1999. The report answers the following questions: how could the United States maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear stockpile without nuclear testing, how could treaty compliance be effectively monitored, and could U.S. adversaries advance their nuclear weapons capabilities under the treaty? Read the full report, a press release, and the opening statement from the press conference when the report was released. (posted 7/31/02)

New European Union Chemicals Policy: Key Elements of the New Legislation - The View of Environmental NGOs, a position paper released jointly by European Environmental Bureau and World Wildlife Federation and supported by Friends of the Earth Europe, presents eight key elements for the protection of human health and the environment that environmental NGOs consider must be part of the new European Union chemical legislation. The draft legislation will be released in autumn 2002 (see background at the European Commission Enterprise Chemicals Unit Web site). Read the full paper (PDF file). (July 8, 2002.)

Piracy Attacks in the Malacca Strait, a report by Alex Dali of ATLAS Service Partners' Risk Management Division in Asia, Singapore, Malaysia, presents the risks that some 200 ships a day face as they pass through the Malacca Strait, the second busiest commercial shipping lane in the world. Read the full report (PDF file) published in RiskWorld. (July 5, 2002.)

Africa Environment Outlook, a ground-breaking United Nations Environment Programme report, presents Africa's hard facts--sharp increases in air and water pollution, land degradation, droughts, and wildlife losses--and urgent tough choices to deliver environmentally-friendly development for its citizens. Read the full report on line. (July 4, 2002.)

Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism, a report by the National Research Council's Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, says the United States should utilize its scientific and engineering strengths "to detect, thwart, and respond to terrorist attacks more effectively." The report identifies actions, including deployment of available technologies, that can be taken immediately; points to critical areas that need research and development activities; and advises establishing an independent homeland security institute to help the government make technical decisions and devise successful strategies. Read a press release about the report and the full report on line. (Posted June 2002.)

Economic Consequences of Terrorism, a special chapter in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's OECD Economic Outlook No. 71, proposes that the attacks on September 11, 2001, are likely to have longer-term implications for the insurance and defense industries, and possibly for international trade. The chapter includes a section on "How to prepare for the risk of mega-terrorism." Read the full chapter in a PDF file. (Posted June 2002.)

Physical Activity Fundamental To Preventing Disease, a report by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, underscores the importance of physical activity in preventing disease (some 300,000 people die each year from diseases and health conditions related to a sedentary lifestyle and poor eating habits, nearly as many as who die from smoking) and outlines the physical and financial costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle, including a cost of $117 billion annually associated with overweight and obesity. Read the full report in HTML or PDF. (Posted June 2002.)

The Relative Risks of School Travel: A National Perspective and Guidance for Local Community Risk Assessment -- Special Report 269, from the National Research Council's Transportation Research Board Committee on School Transportation Safety, puts into perspective a student's risk of traveling to and from school. The report compares six forms of transportation: walking, cycling, and riding in school buses, public transit buses and motorcoaches, and passenger vehicles driven by persons under 19 years of age and 19 years or older. Read the news release summarizing the report's findings and the full report. (Posted June 2002.)

The DDT Ban Turns 30 -- Millions Dead of Malaria Because of Ban, More Deaths Likely, a special report by Todd Seavey, American Council on Science and Health's director of publications and editor of, looks back at the reasons the pesticide DDT was banned 30 years ago, when William Ruckelshaus was the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's first administrator, and at the effects of the ban from 1972 to the present. The full report and other articles regarding this anniversary ("We'd Better Keep Pesticides" and "DDT and Chemophobia") are available on line. (posted June 2002)

Urban and Agricultural Communities: Opportunities for Common Ground, a report released by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), resulted from scientists--ranging from social scientists to horticulturalists--who collaborated for months to provide a road map on how urban and agricultural interests can benefit one another. Access the full report and related information on line. (Posted May 2002.)

Closure and Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System, a National Academy of Sciences report by the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology, National Research Council, highlights the lessons learned from closing the chemical agent disposal facility on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean and suggests the lessons should be applied at similar facilities in the continental United States. The full report is available on line. (Posted April 2002.)

States of the Union: Ranking America's Biodiversity, released by The Nature Conservancy on Earth Day, April 22, 2002, offers new information on state patterns of biological wealth and risk, including where wild plants and animals are found and how they are faring. The report is available in a PDF file. In addition, read the news release. (Posted April 2002.)

Making Better Litigation Decisions Through the Use of Decision and Risk Analysis, by Lefki Giannoupoulou and Gavin Lawrence, provides lawyers and decision makers an approach for identifying and structuring the uncertainties of a decision situation related to a legal case. This paper is published in RiskWorld. (Posted March 2002.)

Invasive Species: Impacts on Agricultural Production, Natural Resources, and the Environment, an issue paper prepared by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), provides policymakers and others with a nine-step guide to prioritization of the control of non-native pests, including diseases, insects, and animals. The source of an estimated $137 billion annual economic burden to the United States, these pests are the second leading cause of species endangerment. In addition, bioterrorism introduces another unknown risk factor into the already unstable mix of detrimental exotic species. Access the full report and related information on line. (Posted March 2002.)

Cybersecurity Today and Tomorrow: Pay Now or Pay Later, a report from the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, says that computer systems across the country are increasingly vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report revisits Research Council reports from the past decade that pertain to computer network security and vulnerability and summarizes findings and recommendations relevant to today's heightened cybersecurity needs. Read the report on line at (Posted January 2002.)


Evaluation of the Potential for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in the United States, a report by Joshua T. Cohen, Keith Duggar, George M. Gray, and Silvia Kreindel of Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard School of Public Health, with Hatim Abdelrahman, Tsegaye HabteMariam, David Oryang, and Berhanu Tameru of Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine's Center for Computational Epidemiology, is the first major analysis of what would happen if Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or "Mad Cow" disease) were introduced into the United States. For three years the researchers studied the disease and its origins in the United Kingdom and other European countries and then constructed a computer model that could simulate the spread of the disease in the United States. PDF versions of an executive summary and the full report are available on line; also see a news release about the project. (Posted June 2002.)

"Computer Network Security and Risk Management," by Ralph Hitchens, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., is featured in the December 2001 issue of the e-journal Language Perils™, a publication of The article discusses the responsibilities and liabilities of computer network administration and provides links to other network security and liability sites, including a report on the 2001 Computer Crime and Security Survey conducted by Computer Security Institute and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. See (Posted November 2001.)

Workshop Report on the Application of 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxicity Equivalence Factors to Fish and Wildlife, from a workshop the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Interior sponsored in 1998. Toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs) are tools for estimating the combined risks from exposure to complex mixtures of polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs). This workshop on the application of dioxin TEFs to fish and wildlife concluded that toxicity equivalence methodology is appropriate for evaluating risks to fish, birds, and mammals. See an abstract summarizing the report and the links to the full report (PDF file, 3370 KB). Note: This report is not EPA's reassessment of the health risks from dioxin, which is available at (Posted November 2001.)

Risk Management - A Check List, by K. Ramachandran, J. B. Boda & Company Pvt. Ltd., provides a 360 degree understanding of risk commercially. The article was published in a recent issue of Asia Insurance Post Magazine, Mumbai, India. (Posted November 2001.)

Damage Assessment Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery: Application to 2001 Bhuj, India, Earthquake, by Lucian Chiroiu and Gilles P. André, PhD Candidates, Université Paris, and Géosciences Consultants, Bagneux, France. The authors were able to quickly estimate the physical damage and human casualties after the Bhuj, India, earthquake of January 26, 2001, by applying a multidisciplinary approach based on high resolution satellite data and earthquake engineering and propose this approach as a useful tool for rescue teams deployed immediately after a catastrophe. The paper's abstract and full text (PDF, 1370 KB) are published in RiskWorld. (Posted November 2001.)

Evaluation of the U.S. Process for Crops Developed Through Biotechnology, an issue paper prepared by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), evaluates the process by which U.S. regulatory agencies determine the safety of biotechnology-derived crops and includes 10 recommendations for policy and research in agricultural biotechnology. Access the full text of the paper and related information on line. (Posted October 2001.)

Report “An Analysis of Fatal Events in the Construction Industry: 1999”.  Rankings of the top 29 causes of fatalities in the construction industry over the past nine years are included in this report, which was prepared for the Office of Statistics of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor by the University of Tennessee’s Construction Industry Research and Policy Center. (Posted 8/3/01.)

Using Your Insurance Company as a Resource for Indoor Air Quality Investigations by Larry Hays of Environmental Support Solutions. With indoor air quality litigation on the rise, many insurance companies are now providing investigative services to assist policyholders with identifying indoor air contaminants and improving working conditions. This paper presents some of the complex indoor air quality issues that building owners and managers face. (Posted 8/3/01.)

Review of First International Workshop on Chance Discovery, by Peter McBurney, Department of Computer Science, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom, will be published in the journal Knowledge Engineering Review. The day-long workshop, which was held on May 22 during the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, hosted thirteen presenters, including the workshop chair, Yukio Ohsawa of the University of Tsukuba, Japan, who opened the workshop with his definition of chance discovery, a term he coined. The workshop's call for papers provides additional information. (Posted 7/3/01.)

Protecting the Children: Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Children's Environmental Health (PDF version), Policy Study No. 283, by Reason Public Policy Institute, written by Gail Charnley of HealthRisk Strategies, states there is little evidence that environmental exposures play a significant role in childhood disease and government agencies do not know which environmental exposures actually pose risks to children, despite annual billions-of-dollar expenditures on environmental health protections and compliances. Therefore, the report suggests focusing research on known threats to children's health and assessing how to reduce those risks effectively. Also see press release. (Released June 2001.)

Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences, a study by the Committee on Health and Behavior: Research, Practice and Policy, Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, Institute of Medicine, was intended initially to update the landmark study of 1982 titled Health and Behavior: Frontiers of Biobehavioral Research. Instead, the committee decided that the health and behavior field had become too large to study in the time allotted and agreed to focus primarily on new and promising developments in the field since 1982, based on the best available research or their assessment of where the field is heading. The report's Part One (of three) discusses factors affecting health, including behavioral risk factors and social risk factors. (Posted June 2001; released May 21, 2001.)

Occupational Asthma and Indoor Air Quality: What You Need to Know, by Larry Hays of Environmental Support Solutions. With over 5% of the U.S. population having asthma and many of them sensitive to occupational irritants, employers must consider their responsibilities with respect to the work environment, particularly the air quality, that they provide for employees who are asthmatics or are vulnerable to the disease. This paper summarizes the known causes of occupational asthma and what measures indoor air-quality managers can take to minimize adverse exposures to company employees. (Posted May 2, 2001.)

Environmental Outlook for the Chemicals Industry, prepared and published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to support the OECD Environmental Outlook chapter on the chemicals industry, includes an outlook to 2020 for chemical production, use, and consumption in OECD countries and other parts of the world; an outlook to 2020 for the environmental impact of the chemical industry; a review of past and present risk management policies for chemical production and use; and an identification of chemical safety issues of the future, with a discussion of policy options to address those issues. A link to the report (PDF version) is available at (Posted April 2001.)

Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction, edited by Kathleen Stratton, Padma Shetty, Robert Wallace and Stuart Bondurant of the  Committee to Assess the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine, focuses on a new group of modified tobacco products that claim to reduce the adverse health effects of tobacco while allowing the user to continue consuming nicotine and evaluates whether or not the products reduce harm for smokers and the public at large. Refer to the National Academies' Web Extra on this report, which includes links to a press release, an audio file of the press conference, and the full report. (Posted June 2001, released February 22, 2001.)

Asbestos, Indoor Air Quality and the EPA National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Program, by Larry Hays of Environmental Support Solutions, discusses the OSHA and EPA regulations applying to the renovation or demolition of buildings in which asbestos materials have been used. He also describes when and how to seek professional help. (Posted February 2, 2001.)

Tuberculosis in the Workplace, a National Academies of Science short-term study requested by the U.S. Congress in November 1999 and performed by an Institute of Medicine committee, examines the risk of occupational exposure to tuberculosis among health care workers and considers the potential effects of federal guidelines and regulations intended to protect workers from this risk. The prepublication copy (uncorrected proofs) is available at (Posted January 2001.)

Informing the Future: Critical Issues in Health (PDF, 7.155 KB) -- a resource the Institute of Medicine has published for the new White House Administration, members of Congress, and policy makers -- presents national and global health policy issues and an overview of the institute's research program. One chapter discusses risk assessments of health effects on military personnel and civilians exposed to toxic substances during war and nuclear testing. The report's home page is located at (Posted January 2001.)


Policy, risk, and science: Securing and using scientific advice (PDF, 916,377 bytes), a government-funded study prepared by Oxford Economic Research Associates Ltd. (OXERA), United Kingdom, offers recommendations for improving the quality of scientific advice, which government receives and uses in policy development, that lies outside the secure region of complete and undisputed scientific understanding, including weak evidence, new and incompletely unknown risks, hypotheses, and gaps in data. The study's conclusions--in the form of principles, a model process, and supplementary notes with detailed recommendations for some aspects of the process--call for significant changes in the operation of existing mechanisms that should lead to better informed policy decisions and should provide a better system of policy development accepted by the public and supported by the scientific community. (Posted November 2000.)

Effective Disaster Warnings (PDF, 318 KB), a report by an interagency working group on Natural Disaster Information Systems under the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction under the U.S. President's National Science and Technology Council, assists scientists, engineers, and emergency managers in developing more accurate and more numerous warnings as they deploy better sensors to measure key variables, employ better dynamic models, and expand their understanding of the causes of disasters. The report addresses issues relating to warning the right people at the right time so they can take appropriate action with respect to the disaster and delivering warnings reliably to only those people at risk and to systems that have been preprogrammed to respond to early warnings. Read the executive summary and table of contents. (Posted November 2000.)

Political Risks Yearbook. Full text available online of country by country political risk analysis.

Grand Challenges in Environmental Sciences. A new report, still in the prepublication stage but available on line, has been prepared by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation that the NRC offer a judgment regarding the most important environmental research challenges of the next generation. The committee selected eight grand challenges and also selected four areas, derived from the grand challenges, to recommend for immediate research investment by NSF and others. The lists are posted in RiskWorld. (Posted November 6, 2000.)

Sets of Scientific Issues Being Considered by the Environmental Protection Agency Regarding: Bt Plant-Pesticides Risk and Benefit Assessments, a 300-page report by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP), provides a comprehensive, preliminary reassessment of the time limited registrations for all Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn and cotton plant-pesticides that will be reviewed for registration renewal in the fall of 2001. Access the full report and associated documents on line. (Posted October 16, 2000)

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in the United States, a scientific report from the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), summarizes the latest information and disease statistics on TSEs--a unique group of fatal diseases that can affect the nervous systems of animals and humans worldwide--and characterizes the overall U.S. risk for the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly called "mad cow" disease, as extremely low. Access the report and related information on line. (Posted October 9, 2000)

Proceedings of the Workshop on the Convergence of Risk Assessment and Socio-economic Analysis to Better Inform Chemical Risk Management Decisions (PDF file, 727 KB) discusses the findings of the workshop held in May 2000, including recommendations and opportunities for enhancing the integration of risk and socio-economic information in the risk management process.

Risk assessment and socio-economic analysis both independently provide information to risk management decision making. The contribution of socio-economic analysis to this process can be strengthened by integrating risk assessment information into the analysis.

The workshop focused on better ways of integrating the outputs and inputs from these two disciplines and of characterizing risk to lead to better informed decision making. It was organized and funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Government of Canada, American Chemistry Council, International Council on Metals and the Environment, Society for Risk Analysis, Resources for the Future and The Procter & Gamble Company, in co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (Posted September 28, 2000)

Methane hydrates, UT-Battelle ORNL reporter, No. 16, June 2000. This article briefly describes a program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, funded under the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act enacted in May, that will study the nature, behavior, and abundance of methane hydrates, a promising world-wide natural gas resource. Based on current energy consumption, estimates of how much energy is stored in methane hydrates, which are believed to reside throughout the globe in sea-floor sediments and permafrost, range from a supply of 350 years to a supply of 3,500 years. (Posted August 28, 2000)

Cellular Phones and Driving: Weighing the Risks and Benefits (PDF format), by Karen Lissy, Joshua Cohen, Mary Park, and John D. Graham, Risk in Perspective, Vol. 8, Issue 6, July 2000. In a study commissioned by AT&T Wireless Communications, the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis conducted a risk-benefit analysis of the use of cellular phones while driving. The study concluded cellular phone use by persons who are driving poses a risk to themselves and others, but the risks appear to be small and insufficient information is available on which to base reasonable policy. (Posted August 24, 2000)

An Investigation of the Safety Implications of Wireless Communications in Vehicles, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), October 25, 1999. The safety benefits of having a communications capability available within a vehicle are well documented; nevertheless, there has been increasing concern over the safety of persons using communications devices while driving. The report concludes that rather than restricting access, the goal should be to make in-vehicle information systems, including wireless communication, as compatible with safe driving as the state-of-the art allows. (Posted August 24, 2000)

A Risk-Based Approach for Managing Occupational Safety and Health in the Laboratory (PDF format), by William E. Crouse and Gregory L. Kedderis, CIIT Activities, Vol. 20, No. 4, April 2000. To minimize the potential for employee and environmental exposures in laboratory research, health and safety professionals at Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology conduct a systems-oriented, prestudy risk assessment for identifying occupational risk factors associated with each laboratory study. The risk assessment process used at CIIT is directly derived from systems safety analysis. Results obtained from employing the risk assessment process are used to develop training and awareness programs for CIIT employees. (Posted August 22, 2000.)

Using Human Data in Risk Assessment to Protect Public Health reports the results of research comparing risk values derived from scientifically credible human data and experimental animal data. The investigators--Melvin Andersen, Colorado State University; Michael Dourson, Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment; Linda Erdreich, Exponent; and Judith MacGregor, Toxicology Consulting Services--tested the hypothesis that the use and interpretation of human data, in conjunction with data gathered from experimental animals, leads to the best estimation of risk values and that this use of human data is therefore a public health protective policy that should be encouraged. RiskWorld publishes a synopsis of the research and links to a pre-publication copy of the paper and to other supporting documents. (Posted August 2, 2000.)

Enhancing the Role of Science in Stakeholder-Based Risk Management Decision-Making, a report by Gail Charnley, HealthRisk Strategies, examines how the integrity of science can be maintained while more democratic risk management decision-making processes are being implemented. (Posted July 21, 2000.)

Estrogenicity and Endocrine Disruption, an issue paper by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), presents how exposure to synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals can affect important endocrine pathways and induce toxic responses. Stephen H. Safe of the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University, College Station, headed the task force of authors from various scientific disciplines who contributed to the paper, which analyzes several widely reported issues, including endocrine disruption's impact on decreased sperm counts and male reproductive capacity and on increased breast cancer rates, and cites numerous areas where additional research is needed. Access the paper and associated information on line. (Posted July 18, 2000.)

Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture, a white paper prepared by the Royal Society of London, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the Mexican Academy of Sciences, and the Third World Academy of Sciences, examines the potential for genetically modified crops to assist developing countries and the issues that need to be addressed. Read the press release describing the paper,  and browse the NAS web extra on biotechnology titled Technology to Feed the World. (Posted July 11, 2000.)

Relevance of Soil Testing to Agriculture and the Environment, an issue paper from the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), helps pinpoint factors that need to be considered when using soil tests as a guide to protecting the environment while producing economical food. The paper also provides perspective on the role of soil tests, which farmers have long used in making crop production decisions. Eugene Kamprath, the William Neal Reynolds Professor Emeritus of Soil Science at North Carolina State University, chaired the task force of nine authors who wrote this paper. Access this paper and related information on line. (Posted June 30, 2000.)

Genetically Modified Pest Protected Plants: Science and Regulation, a National Research Council report issued on April 5, 2000, despite congressional demands that the study be abandoned because of conflicts of interest of some staff and panelists, investigates the risks and benefits of GMPP plants and their regulation. Also see RiskWorld's news brief. (Posted May 2, 2000.)

Safety Assessment and Risk Assessment - Sometimes More Is Less, a paper by Clark Carrington and Michael Bolger of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, is published in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's ORACBA News. The authors point out that the oldest formal decision process in regulating exposure to potentially toxic substances, referred to as the NOAEL/SF-UF (No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level/Safety Factor-Uncertainty Factor) procedure, and a formal risk assessment may start with the same data but do not produce the same result. Also see RiskWorld's news brief. (Posted May 2, 2000.)

Comments on EPA's Evaluation of the Atrazine Mechanism of Carcinogenic Action by James D. Wilson is a short essay pertaining to comments that he sent to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in January, 2000, to help a Scientific Advisory Panel committee evaluate an EPA report, issued in December, that describes results of research on the herbicide atrazine and presents some conclusions drawn from that research.

Energy Investment Opportunities in Newly Liberalizing Economics Fraught with Risks, by Charles Tooman (, risk management associate. In today’s world, economic privatization and political liberalization are the dominant global forces of change with dramatic impacts on international relations. Once closed markets are opening to Western multinational corporations, and reform-minded governments are inviting bids on state-owned assets. As a result tremendous opportunities exist for both the international suitors and the governments and industries of the liberalizing nations, particularly in the energy sector. Such opportunities, however, entail considerable political, legal, and economic risks, the realization of which has caused the largest players in the global energy market to re-evaluate their investment strategies. While some efforts have been abandoned or slowed, many organizations will proceed ahead, hoping to benefit from increasing energy use in the liberalizing nations, which is expected to surpass that of the industrialized world by 6% in 2020. (Posted April 19, 2000.)

Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Mitigate Global Warming, a new issue paper from the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) and written by Norman J. Rosenberg and Roberto C. Izaurralde of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, states that the same farming practices promoting soil conservation can also decrease the amount of CO2 accumulating in the atmosphere and threatening a global warming. Access this paper on line. (Posted April 6, 2000.)

The Potential Health Impacts of Climate Variability and Change for the United States: Executive Summary of the Report of the Health Sector of the U.S. National Assessment presents an overview of the first 18 months of the Health Sector team's congressionally mandated study on the potential impacts of climate variability and change on human health. The report is also published in the April 2000 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives (Volume 108, Number 4). (Posted March 15, 2000; updated October 4, 2000.)

What You Don't Know Can Hurt You: Price Volatility and Hedging with Futures by Charles Tooman (,  risk management associate. The author points out that although futures are widely used in the mitigation of price risk, using futures without a clearly defined risk management strategy can threaten the accomplishment of a firm’s long-range objectives. (Posted January 27, 2000)


Applications of Biotechnology to Crops: Benefits and Risks, a Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) issue paper released in December 1999, summarizes the recent scientific developments in modern biotechnology and discusses the potential benefits and risks when these are applied to agricultural crops. Access this paper and related information on line.

Radiation Risk and Ethics by Zbigniew Jaworowski, Physics Today, Vol. 52, No. 9, pp. 24-29, September 1999, American Institute of Physics.

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio will be available in September from the National Academy Press, telephone (202) 334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. See publication announcement at the National Academies web site.

Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities is available from the National Academy Press for $54.95 (prepaid) plus shipping charges of $4.50 for the first copy and $0.95 for each additional copy, telephone (202) 334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. See publication announcement at the National Academies web site.

Pre-publication copies of Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment are available from the National Academy Press, telephone (202) 334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242. See press release at the National Academies web site.

To obtain a copy of Regulatory Improvement Legislation: Judicial Review of Provisions Regarding Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, a recent publication from the Center for Risk Analysis of the Harvard School of Public Health, contact Bryan Sweet, telephone (617) 432-117 or e-mail


The Environmental Industry: Market Forces, Strategies, and Tactics Through 2000, Environmental Data Resources, Inc., 1998. A 700+ page market research report on the environmental industry that will guide you to business opportunities in the environmental consulting, services, and equipment segments of the air, water, and waste markets domestically and internationally.

Foodborne Pathogens: Review of Recommendations, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), Ames, Iowa, October 1998. This report offers 18 recommendations as a platform to focus and stimulate efforts toward food safety improvements (updating a September 1994 CAST report titled Foodborne Pathogens: Risks and Consequences). Access the report and related information on line

Sustaining Marine Fisheries, by National Research Council Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries, Harold Mooney (Chairman), National Aacademy Press, 1998 (prepublication copy), Washington, D.C.

Environmental Policy: The Next Generation, by Donald F. Kettl, Brookings Institution, Policy Brief No. 37, October 1998.

Facts Versus Fears: A Review of the Greatest Unfounded Health Scares of Recent Times, by Adam J. Lieberman and Simona C. Kwon, prepared for the American Council on Science and Health, Third Edition, revised June 1998.

The Proposed EPA Plant Pesticide Rule, an issue paper published by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), October 1998.

Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Market and Economic Activity, by the U.S. Energy Information Administration for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, 1998.

Black and Smokeless Powders: Technologies for Finding the Bombs and the Bombmakers, by National Research Council Committee on Smokeless and Black Powder, Edwin P. Przybylowicz, Chairman, 1998  (prepublication copy), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Using Stakeholder Processes in Environmental Decisionmaking: An Evaluation of Lessons Learned, Key Issues, and Future Challenges prepared by Terry F. Yosie and Timothy D. Herbst is on line in RiskWorld in HTML format and PDF format. (Report supported by a grant from the American Industrial Health Council, the American Petroleum Institute, and the Chemical Manufacturers Association.)

Trust in Cyberspace, by Committee on Information Systems Trustworthiness, Fred B. Schneider, Editor, 1998, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (prepublication copy).

Feasibility of Prescription Pesticide Use in the United States, by Harold D. Coble et al., Issue Paper No. 9, August 1998, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST).

Understanding Risk Analysis: A Short Guide for Health, Safety and Environmental Policy Making, by Mark Boroush, 1998, published jointly by American Chemical Society (Ray Garant, Supervisor) and Resources for the Future (Terry Davies, supervisor).

Exposure of the American People to Iodine-131 from Nevada Atomic Bomb Tests: Review of the National Cancer Institute Report and Public Health Implications, by Combined Committees of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998 (prepublication copy), National Academy Press.

Ensuring Safe Food from Production to Consumption, by Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council, 1998, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C. (summary).


The full texts of Volume 1 and Volume 2 of the final report of the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management are on line in RiskWorld.

Volume I, titled Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management, is available in both HTML format and PDF format.

Volume 2, titled Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making, is available in both HTML format and PDF format.

If Ecological Risk Assessment Is the Answer, What Is the Question? by Robert T. Lackey of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory; modified from a presentation given at the Risk Assessment and Policy Association International Meeting, March 6-7, 1997, in Washington, DC, and published in Health and Ecological Risk Assessment, 3(6):921-928. This paper focuses on the appropriate use, or misuse, of ecological risk assessment by governmental and nongovernmental organizations to help produce answers to ecological policy questions. (Posted January 2000.)

Internal Rate of Return Revisited: Economic Analysis by Ray Martin notes the concerns that the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management identified about the use of economic analyses in regulatory decision making.


A Review of the California Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Practices, Policies, and Guidelines (final report) by the Risk Assessment Advisory Committee, an external scientific committee of the California EPA, November 1996.

Convening Report Regarding the Formation of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee prepared by the Keystone Center of Keystone, Colorado, 1996.

Future of Irrigated Agriculture, a report published by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST); 1996.

Improving the Environment: An Evaluation of the DOE's Environmental Management Program by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1996; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society, a report on risk characterization by the National Research Council, June 1996.

WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria: A Scientific Assessment by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1996; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Reports related to the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management:

Risk Commission

Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making (HTML version), a draft report by the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, was released on June 13, 1996, for public review and comment. For information on how to view and download a PDF version of the report, see PDF version. (See listing of the final report under "1997" above.)

Review of Noncancer Risk Assessment: Application of Benchmark Dose Methods by Elaine M. Faustman, University of Washington. (One of seven supporting documents of the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management's 1996 report titled Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making; PDF version of full report available in RiskWorld.)

An Assessment of the Risk Assessment Paradigm for Ecological Risk Assessment by Menzie-Cura & Associates Inc. (One of seven supporting documents of the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management's 1996 report titled Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making; PDF version of full report available in RiskWorld.)

Cost-Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Reform by Raymond Kopp, Alan Krupnick, and Michael Toman, Resources for the Future. (One of seven supporting documents of the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management's 1996 report titled Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making; PDF version of full report available in RiskWorld.)

Report to the Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management: Health Risk Assessments Prepared per the Risk Assessment Reforms Under Consideration in the U.S. Congress by Edmund A.C. Crouch, Richard R. Lester, Timothy L. Lash, Sarah R. Armstrong, and Laura C. Green, Cambridge Environmental Inc. (One of seven supporting documents of the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management's 1996 report titled Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making; PDF version of full report available in RiskWorld.)

A Survey of Methods for Chemical Health Risk Assessment Among Presidential/Congressional Regulatory Agencies by Lorenz R. Rhomberg, Harvard Center for Risk Analysis. (One of seven supporting documents of the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management's 1996 report titled Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making; PDF version of full report available in RiskWorld.)


Environmental Risk Assessment: An Australian Perspective, by Tom Beer and Frank Ziolkowski of Australia’s Environmental Protection Agency, November 1995. The report is described as the first step toward introducing a process of formalized risk assessment to Australian environmental agencies. It illustrates the use of risk assessment with five case studies and presents a generic framework within which environmental risk assessment in Australia can be undertaken.

Flood Risk Management and the American River Basin: An Evaluation by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1995; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Risk and Innovation: The Role and Importance of Small, High-Tech Companies in the U.S. Economy by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1995; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Reform of Risk Regulation: Achieving More Protection at Less Cost by the Harvard Group on Risk Management Reform, March 1995.

Technical Team Review of the Proposed New Double-Shell Tanks at Hanford by an independent technical team for the U.S. Department of Energy, April 1995.

Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake Preliminary Report by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, February 1995.


Building Consensus Through Risk Assessment and Management of the Department of Energy's Environmental Remediation Program by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1994; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Product Liability and Innovation: Managing Risk in an Uncertain Environment by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1994; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Optimal Calcium Intake -- Summary of the NIH Consensus by a consensus panel of the National Institutes of Health's Consensus Development Conference on Optimal Calcium intake, June 1994. 


Issues in Risk Assessment by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1993; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.


Valuing Health Risks, Costs, and Benefits for Environmental Decision Making: Report of a Conference by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1990; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.


Improving Risk Communication by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council; 1989; the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.



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